Endodontic treatment or endodontic therapy is very common now-a-days. The treatment comprises of a series of procedures which includes locating the canal orifice, pulp tissue debridement, working length determination, bio-mechanical preparation, obturation of the root canals, permanent restoration of the tooth structure.
The bio-mechanical preparation is the most important step for a successful root canal treatment. It involves cleaning and shaping of the canals with a proper tapering for the better receive of the gutta-percha points during obturation. With the advancement in dentistry, the traditional hand instrumentation technique has been replaced with rotary endodontics. It enhances the ability to remove debris from canal ramification and apical foramen towards coronal direction that produces a greater tapering in root canal. Also it reduces chair side time of the dentist making the root canal treatment effortless.
Endodontic motors are the electrical devices used to drive the rotary files for shaping of root canals during root canal treatment. It saves the time of the dentist by offering different programs to set for different types of files, auto-reverse functions, reciprocation modes and many more. The most advanced endodontic motors are available in the market with integrated apex locator, for more accurate root canal treatment with higher success rates.
All you need to know about Advanced Endodontic motors:
- Reciprocation is the repetitive back & forth motion used during bio-mechanical preparation. It is more effective than continuous rotation. Reciprocation means accurate angle control. A large rotating angle in the cutting direction provides high efficiency, whereas a smaller angle in the reverse direction allows the file to safely progress along the canal path, whilst reducing the risk of a screwing effect and file breakage.
Advantages of Reciprocation:
- Extends life span of rotary files.
- Offers more cutting efficiency.
- Preserve original canal anatomy ( curved canals/ J-shaped canals)
- Less chair time
- Fewer micro-dentine cracks.
- Relation between Speed & Torque:
Endomotor comes with range of speed & torque to set for different file systems. More the speed, more the cutting efficiency, but has the disadvantage of micro-dentinal fracture which lessen the tooth strength or change in anatomical curvature of canal leading to various complications. Torque in root canal treatment must be controllable. If high torque is used, the specific torque limit of the file is often exceeded, increasing the mechanical stress and leading to file breakage. So the balance of speed and torque is mandatory during bio-mechanical preparation for better shaping of the canal and better results.
- Auto-reverse Function:
Also knows as Torque provoked reverse in the direction of rotation. The auto reverse function causes the rotation of the file to change to the opposite direction when the pre-set torque limit is reached. This greatly reduces the load on the rotary file. When the excess load is removed the motor handpiece returns to a normal forward rotation automatically.
It helps in effortlessly shaping the root canals and reduces the procedural accidents such as Elliptication/zipping of canals, ledge formation & root perforation.
The most advanced endodontic motors come with integrated apex locator. It provides safe & effective instrumentation inside the canal. When performing the bio-mechanical preparation, the apex locator gives the real time display of the file inside the canal. When the tip of the file reaches the apical terminus, it creates a beep sound, preventing over-instrumentation.